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Volume 24, Issue 2 , April 2012, Pages 139-152
open access
Author links open overlay panel B. Kaleeswaran S. Ilavenil S. Ravikumar Get rights and content
Open Access funded by King Saud University
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Indian major carp, (Ham.), was fed with ethanolic extract of (L.) mixed diet with 0.05% (group A), 0.5% (group B) and 5% (group C) extract for 60days with an interval of 10days. Significant (> 0.05) alterations were observed in the Cheap Pay With Visa Christian Louboutin Gamma Talon 120 Patent Leather Pumps Many Kinds Of For Sale Discount 2018 Unisex Cheap Sale Big Discount Cheap Sale Perfect tnjsC
and biochemical parameters such as white blood cell counts, red blood cell counts, haemoglobin content, serum glucose , cholesterol , protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio and RNA/DNA ratio in the experimental diet and control fishes. Non-specific immune response was assessed by the
anti-protease activity, which was significantly increased in the experimental diet groups. The specific immune response of fish was evaluated by antibody response against heat-killed
for 28days by using ELISA and bacterial agglutination assay. Aggregation of melanomacrophage centres (MMC) and considerable modifications were observed in the histological analysis of the spleen of experimental diet groups. These results suggested that (L.) could combat the microbial infection by stimulating the immune response in fish.

Melanomacrophage centres

Infectious diseases are a major problem in aquaculture causing heavy loss to the fish farmers. The recent expansion of intensive aquaculture practices has led to high interest in understanding the various fish diseases, so that they can be treated or prevented. It is widely demonstrated that the occurrence of diseases in fish farm is due to several factors concerned with the rearing methods, environmental conditions and variations. Consequently, cultivated fish can become more susceptible not only to pathogenic but also to opportunistic bacteria ( Woo and Bruno, 1998 ).

Sarah Perez @sarahintampa /

A company called Elemental Path is developing a new line of smart toys for children which will be powered by the super computing system IBM Watson, enabling the toys to engage in real and personalized conversations with kids, and evolve with the child as he or she grows. CogniToys, as the toy line is being called, is today introducing its first entry into this space, with a smart dinosaur toy that supports full speech recognition and can chat with kids, tell them jokes and answer a wide variety of“who,” “when,” “where” and “why” questions.

The startup is now live on Kickstarter with the goal of raising $50,000 to take the toys into production.

Co-founded byDonald Coolidge and JP Benini, previously of software development shop Majestyk Apps, along withArthur Tu, Elemental Path came about after the team won a developer competition which allowed them access to the IBM Watson technology, making them the first toy company to be able to tap into the system.

While none of the co-founders have kids themselves, they believed in thisidea of “connected” toys to both entertain and educate children.

“We felt it was the right time for something like this to happen,” explains Coolidge. “Kids are using iPhones and tablets much more than most parents would like them to, when the benefits are not very clear,” he says. With CogniToys, the technology is instead inside the device and the toy gets to know the child, engage the child, and includes a variety of specific educational content that’s infused into the interaction. “It provides educational benefit, beyond just the play,” Coolidge notes.

The early prototypes of the CogniToys dinosaur were printed using a 3D printing system, but when they come to market, the toys will be made out of a soft, texturized rubber – similar to that of a LeapFrog tablet. On the toy’s front, there’s a big button that, when pressed, begins the interaction.

Inside, the technology is lightweight. There’s only a speakerphone, microphone, battery pack, and a small piece of hardware that connects to the cloud.

“As a connected device, we’re really doing all the processing in the cloud. The benefit ofthat is that we can launch a more affordable toy,” explainsCoolidge.

With the IBM Watson-powered system, the toy is able to listen and respond to questions and return its answers quickly – within a second or much less, the company claims.

And due to its connected nature, the toy becomes smarter the more it’s used both by the child him or herself, andby all the toys’ owners combined. For instance, a caching layer helps to speed up responses for questions that have already been asked before, and the toy’s content can be updated in real-time. That can help when children ask questions that have never been asked before. As the system’s content is updated, the next child to ask the same question will now have an answer.

Aimed at those ages four to seven, the toy can be customized to its owners. For the toy’s younger users, the system offers activities like jokes and storytelling, while older kids can ask it more specific questions, including questions about educational content, like math. The team also points out that the toy doesn’t answer everything a child might ask, as they’ve programmed in what they’re calling “mommy questions.” For example, if a child asks where babies come from, the toy tells them to go ask a parent instead.

Meanwhile, parents can customize the system with some basic information like the child’s name and age, and they can then monitor their child’s learning progress in real-time, using a cloud-based connected dashboard.

While the Kickstarter launching nowwill allow early adopters to purchase the toy starting at $99 or a two-pack for $190, the company’s longer-term vision is to focus on the technology’s development, not the actual toys themselves. The end goal is to license what they build to be the “brains” behind other physical toys, and they tell us that initial conversations with toy companies are already taking place. The software could be used in other applications as well, includingkids’ apps.

Based in Manhattan, the startup has a small amount of funding from friends and family, but will likely raise a seed round in the future.

The toys are expected tobegin shipping on November 1st.

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Why do some of us give up on our goals while others have the grit to see them through? How do some people manage to persist in the face of repeated rejection and other setbacks?

To crack the nut of extraordinary motivation, I decided to study the example of Rebecca Skloot. Skloot is the author of the 2010 book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks ,which spent seventy-five weeks on the New York Times Best Sellers list, won a slew of awards, and has been turned into a film starring Oprah Winfrey, due for release in April on HBO.

In hindsight, this success seems inevitable. (Success often does, and rarely is.) In reality, the first-time author spent ten years reporting and writing her book, during which time she encountered barrier after barrier:

That person’s got what it takes to succeed.

What is the “it”? Smarts? Vision? Creativity? Those are great qualities, but they can’t make a full impact without another ingredient: determination to get things done — in a word, grit.

Grit keeps us going when things get tough. It pushes us toward the finish line when we’re too far away to see it. When we get stuck, grit insists there has to be another way.

Psychologists have recently found that the grittier a person is, the likelier they are to succeed. The connection is so strong that grit is a better predictor of success than raw talent or high IQ.*

Whether or not you’re naturally gritty, it’s the kind of mettle you can develop. It comes down to believing that change — in your abilities and circumstances — is always possible through your own actions.

This is what goes on in a gritty frame of mind:

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By Unstuck

Life is complicated — but your motivation isn’t. Without exception, every action we take is motivated either by love or by fear. For example:

• Acting weird around someone we’re not sure about: Fear ( What if we don’t get along? I don’t want to feel disliked by someone I don’t really connect with. )

•Offering constructive criticism, even though it makes you sweat: Love ( I want this person to do well. I won’t withhold the information he needs to do that. )

•Telling someone it’s okay, even though you think it probably isn’t: Fear ( I’m not sure how to tell him otherwise. He might react badly. I don’t want to feel bad about it. )

•Sharing the responsibility for a situation your partner created: Love ( I care about improving this situation, for everyone involved. Blaming her for it won’t help change things. )

Whether it’s an everyday quibble (your boyfriend is being difficult) or a really big deal (your read more

By Unstuck

Let’s start the new year as ourselves — magnified.

Just imagine it. As we walk the chilly corridors of January, we give off a certain something, that je ne sais quoi usually spotted in the picture-perfect pages of magazines. Our confidence swells. Others are drawn into our orbit. We have something to offer — and we’re offering it.

Are we being overly romantic? Maybe. But hear us out.

There’s something that you’re good at. Really, really good at. But in the swirl that is life, it’s probably gathered some dust, as you scramble with paperwork, home repairs, and finding five minutes to breathe.

So let’s take those five minutes now (pretend you’re reading a work email if need be) to breathe and ponder: What is that misplaced thing I do so well that brings me joy? Here are some thought starters: serve as the glue for your family, find the singular treasure at flea read more

By Unstuck

There’s great satisfaction in getting things done.

We get involved. We learn things. We find order in chaos. And the ultimate reward: We make progress that is appreciated (even if it’s just by us).

This kind of soul-nourishing effort rates as high as money, if not higher , when it comes to motivation. It helps define purpose and give us the ambition to stick with it.

But every so often, almost unwittingly, our ambition withers and things languish half finished. At Unstuck, we call this acting like an Idle Achiever. We’re unable to commit to the project or the person or the mission at hand. Instead, we start and stop like we’re driving a stick shift for the first time.

To smooth out this herky-jerky moment, it helps to understand how we got there in the first place. Take our mini-quiz to find out what type of Idle Achiever you tend to be. Then, read more

By Unstuck

Stuck moment: My life, in a word? Uneventful. Sure, I’ve got plenty of things to do. And I do them. Every. Day. The same. Way. Why don’t interesting things happen in my life?

* * *

Way back in 1969, Peggy Lee sang the Grammy-winning song, “Is That All There Is?” It’s the story of a person who experiences life’s milestones and ends up disappointed each time. Isn’t there more to it? Is that all there is?

We’ve all felt it at times. Maybe we rushed to adulthood with open arms, surprised to find it riddled with responsibility and taxes. Or our marital bliss became a grind of daily compromise. Perhaps that promising new job devolved into paperwork and PowerPoint.

We’re left wondering, Where’s my opportunity? When and where does my ship come in?

The answer is: Right there, right where it’s always been. But we need to read more

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Open Access
Alok Joshi , Vahab Youssofzadeh , Vinith Vemana , T. M. McGinnity , Girijesh Prasad , KongFatt Wong-Lin
Published 18 January 2017 . DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2016.0902
Alok Joshi
School of Computer Science , University of Manchester , Manchester , UK
Vahab Youssofzadeh
Division of Neurology , Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center , Cincinnati, OH , USA
Vinith Vemana
Computer Science and Engineering , Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Jodhpur , Jodhpur , India
T. M. McGinnity
Intelligent Systems Research Centre (ISRC) , University of Ulster , Derry–Londonderry , UK College of Science and Technology , Nottingham Trent University , Nottingham , UK
Girijesh Prasad
Intelligent Systems Research Centre (ISRC) , University of Ulster , Derry–Londonderry , UK
KongFatt Wong-Lin
Intelligent Systems Research Centre (ISRC) , University of Ulster , Derry–Londonderry , UK

This article has a correction. Please see:


Neuromodulators are endogenous neurochemicals that regulate biophysical and biochemical processes, which control brain function and behaviour, and are often the targets of neuropharmacological drugs. Neuromodulator effects are generally complex partly owing to the involvement of broad innervation, co-release of neuromodulators, complex intra- and extrasynaptic mechanism, existence of multiple receptor subtypes and high interconnectivity within the brain. In this work, we propose an efficient yet sufficiently realistic computational neural modelling framework to study some of these complex behaviours. Specifically, we propose a novel dynamical neural circuit model that integrates the effective neuromodulator-induced currents based on various experimental data (e.g. electrophysiology, neuropharmacology and voltammetry). The model can incorporate multiple interacting brain regions, including neuromodulator sources, simulate efficiently and easily extendable to large-scale brain models, e.g. for neuroimaging purposes. As an example, we model a network of mutually interacting neural populations in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus and locus coeruleus, which are major sources of neuromodulator orexin/hypocretin, serotonin and norepinephrine/noradrenaline, respectively, and which play significant roles in regulating many physiological functions. We demonstrate that such a model can provide predictions of systemic drug effects of the popular antidepressants (e.g. reuptake inhibitors), neuromodulator antagonists or their combinations. Finally, we developed user-friendly graphical user interface software for model simulation and visualization for both fundamental sciences and pharmacological studies.

Neuronal activities, through the firing of action potentials and synaptic transmissions, can be modulated by endogenous neurochemicals called neuromodulators, acting through biophysical and biochemical processes [ Sale Online Store Footlocker Pictures For Sale loose strap slippers Buy Cheap The Cheapest Sale Authentic 2018 Newest Cheap Price E5YX5
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]. These neuromodulators are released by a distinct population of neurons, and the neuromodulators act on specific receptors which are distributed throughout the brain [ 3 ]. Major neuromodulators include serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine (NE; or noradrenaline), acetylcholine, orexin (or hypocretin), endorphins and octopamine [ 3 ]. As a consequence of neuromodulation, neural circuit function can be altered, which in turn can affect cognition, mood and behaviour [ 3 ]. In neuropharmacological drug treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric illnesses, the monoaminergic systems (especially that of serotonin, dopamine and NE) are often targeted [ 4 ]. These are achieved, for example, by altering the affinity of the associated receptors that influences the release and reuptake mechanism of the monoaminergic systems [ 5 , 6 ]. As neuromodulators can also influence the biophysical properties of the neurons and synapses via multiple receptors with differential affinities, the complexity level in a neuronal circuit function can be substantial [ 7 , 8 ]. Experimental work often focuses on a specific brain region or system (e.g. certain receptor subtype) or employs a specific experimental methodology specific to the single level of biological organization (e.g. whole-cell recording at the neuronal level or voltammetric recording at specific brain region). Thus, it is difficult to reconcile their systemic implications.

Staff report

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